Ilse had muscular dystrophy and was an inspiring, selfless worker on behalf of people with disabilities, both in the workplace and beyond. One of her goals was to create a comprehensive directory such as this that would be of value to all South Africans with disabilities. Before she died inIlse worked for several years on gathering information for this purpose. This was a massive undertaking, especially as it was not done full-time.
Received Sep 3; Accepted Nov 3.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract New measurements indicate that the public are being exposed, without their knowledge, to airborne ultrasound. Existing guidelines are insufficient for such exposures; the vast majority refers to occupational exposure only where workers are aware of the exposure, can be monitored and can wear protection.
Existing guidelines are based on an insufficient evidence base, most of which was collected over 40 years ago by researchers who themselves considered it insufficient to finalize guidelines, but which produced preliminary guidelines. The evidence base is so slim that few reports have progressed far along the sequence from anecdote to case study, to formal scientific controlled trials and epidemiological studies.
Early studies reported hearing threshold shifts, nausea, headache, fatigue, migraine and tinnitus, but there is insufficient research on human subjects, and insufficient measurement of fields, to assess what health risk current occupational and public exposures might produce.
Furthermore, the assumptions underpinning audiology and physical measurements at high frequencies must be questioned: The degree of response, from significant to none, varied between workers. The evidence base has not studied sufficient numbers of subjects, and has not been sufficiently sensitive to the presence of sensitive individuals, or sensitive subgroups, within the population, to support the guidelines required today.
Studies focused on occupational exposure to ultrasound, which tends also to occur alongside high levels of audible sound, and the effect of this audio frequency noise on the observed effects must be isolated because there is increasing public exposure to ultrasound without such audible cues.
Consequently, the evidence to date has been wholly inadequate to inform the development of guidelines for the increasing exposure of the public to ultrasound in air, and is suspect for occupational exposure.
Guidelines must be based on good evidence. Evidence must be collected with reliable measurement methods and calibrations, and this is unlikely to be possible by simply extending to the ultrasonic regime the established procedures used in audiology, acoustical engineering, and metrology at audio frequencies.
Unit Introductory awareness of autistic spectrum conditions Learning Outcome 1 1) describe the types of difficulty that individual with an autistic spectrum condition may have with language and other ways of communicating with others. Asperger syndrome Essays and Research Papers | kaja-net.com StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes Introductory awareness of autistic spectrum conditions. Unit Introductory awareness of autistic spectrum conditions Learning Outcome 1 1) describe the types of difficulty . Unit Introductory awareness of autistic spectrum conditions Learning Outcome 1 1) describe the types of difficulty that individual with an autistic spectrum condition may have with language and other ways of communicating with others.
There must be a sufficient volume of evidence to be statistically significant, and it must not ignore possible variations in sensitivity seen in the population, and between and within subsets of the population. UK clinicians are unlikely to consider ultrasound in their differential diagnosis when encountering the symptoms listed earlier, as it is not well recognized and not included in any of the relevant NICE UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence publications, which are all evidence based.
For both policymakers and clinicians, the evidence base is inadequate to predict the health risk and discomfort likely to be seen in the general population as a result of public exposure to ultrasound in air.
Even for occupational exposure the evidence base is too small if it were adequate, we would not see a factor of over 3 million in intensity between the lowest and highest occupational guidelines at 20 kHz.
Lack of evidence and reliable physical measurements is not currently a stimulus for evidence gathering, but rather is providing a situation of uncertainty and confusion that enables manufacturers and those responsible for public places to deploy devices that insonify the public.
The evidence base has not progressed far up the hierarchy from manufacturer claims and individual anecdotes, to case and cohort studies and laboratory testing, all the way up to randomized controlled trials. In such a dearth of scientific and medical data, those least reliable items that form the base of this hierarchy cannot be ignored, and therefore web pages are perforce cited at times in this study.
Given that we must be sceptical even of articles in peer-reviewed journals of high quality, we must be increasingly sceptical of citations further down the publication hierarchy, from non-peer reviewed articles professional journals, most conferences down to web pages. This paper presents new measurements that demonstrate human exposure to airborne ultrasound in public places, including railway stations, museums, libraries, schools and sports stadia.
It argues that the guidelines for protecting humans from airborne ultrasound vary and are uniformly inadequate: The scepticism to reports of symptoms by the public is supported by the scarcity of attempts to measure such fields, and lack of a proposed mechanism by which such effects are produced, both of which this paper has taken the initial steps to address.
Furthermore, the guidelines are based on the average response of small groups, often of adult males, whereas recent data suggest 1 in 20 people aged 40—49 years have hearing thresholds that are at least 20 dB more sensitive at 20 kHz than that of the average 30—39 year old [ 10 ]. While this does not allow us to extrapolate what adverse effects this acuity might cause, it suggests that the underpinning scientific research on which guidelines have been set is inadequate for current exposures.
For higher frequencies there are virtually no performance specifications. Standards specifying a new type of instrumentation for airborne VHF sound and ultrasound are therefore required. Overview a Mass public exposure of today versus occupational exposure of the past i Public exposure and the decibel Take a smart phone or tablet computer, equip it with an app capable of producing a spectrogram of the microphone reading, and see whether you can detect airborne ultrasound in a public place appendix A.
The data in figure 1 were recorded in two large hallways, in public buildings, at a time when they were occupied and traversed by hundreds of people. In both, there were loudspeakers placed every few metres.
Figure 1 a was recorded in the main lobby of a major public library, open on several levels, that contained walkways, workstations for staff and visitors, and seating areas where many people including infants sat directly under the ceiling-mounted loudspeakers.
The library has an annual footfall in excess of 1. In the absence of plans, the author estimates this lobby to measure approximately 50 m by 50 m by 15 m high.Apprenticeship Health and Social Care at CTS Training Introductory awareness of autistic spectrum conditions.
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Group C Optional Generic Pathway. Unit Introductory awareness of autistic spectrum conditions Learning Outcome 1 1) describe the types of difficulty that individual with an autistic spectrum condition may have with language and other ways of communicating with others.
It has created an awareness of the resources available and enabled people to access them. It's also involved in disability awareness initiatives with the community. The Masiphatisane Disability Forum also offers people from Nyanga and Khayelitsha the opportunity to meet and discuss common problems.
Unit Introductory awareness of autistic spectrum conditions Learning Outcome 1 1) describe the types of difficulty that individual with an autistic spectrum condition may have with language and other ways of communicating with others The difficulties may show them self in some or all of the following ways: a delayed or complete.
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