We know that Charlemagne interfered in the Danish civil war and that while waiting for the Danish to attack, they took up defensive positions and launched a massive naval assault on Frisia, modern day Holland.
His belief in the need for education among the Frankish people was to bring about religious, political, and educational reforms that would change the history of Europe. His grandfather, Charles, had begun the process of unifying Western Europe, in the belief that all people should be Christian. All three, in addition to the political unification, believed that the church should be reformed and reorganized under the Pope, which helped their rise to power as the Carolingian Dynasty.
Pepin, in the Merovingian tradition of the time, split his kingdom between his two sons. Three years later Carloman died and Charlemagne took control of the entire kingdom. He inherited great wealth and a powerful army, built by his father and grandfather. Charlemagne used the army and his own skillful planning to more than double the size of the Frankish Kingdom.
Halsall 15 The world of Charlemagne was a heathen one, with many warring tribes or kingdoms. Many of these tribes were conquered by Charlemagne, among them the Aquitanians, the Lombards, the Saxons, the Bretons, the Bavarians, the Huns, and the Danes.
The longest of these battles was against the Saxons, lasting thirty-three years. Charlemagne actually defeated them many times, but due to their faithlessness and their propensity to return to their pagan lifestyle, the Saxons lost many lives in the prolonged battles with the Franks.
With each conquest the Frankish kingdom grew, and with growth came additional power and responsibility for Charlemagne. In each area of Europe that was taken over by Charlemagne, he removed the leaders if they would not convert to Christianity and appointed new ones, usually someone with high position in the Church.
Those people who refused to convert or be baptized in the church were put to death. Holmes 75 The Church played a vital role in the kingdom of Charlemagne. The people conquered by Charlemagne, after being converted to Christianity, were taught through the Bible a unified code of right and wrong.
It was necessary for the Church to play a role in this education of the people, because only the clergy were educated. Ganshoff 25 At the beginning of the Carolingian dynasty the Church was suffering from many problems.
Paganistic peoples, a degradation of the Latin language, and the decline of power of the Pope or Papacy all contributed to the need for a leader to bring about reformation.
Charles Martel, Pepin, and ultimately Charlemagne all took as their personal responsibility the reorganization of the Church. Each one, as king of the Franks, saw it his duty to better the state of his churches. His purpose was to insure that church services were always conducted in the proper form, with correct pronunciation and grammar.
The education of the priests also served to provide Charlemagne with a growing number of educated people for his administration, and gave his kingdom a unified written language that could be passed on throughout all of Western Europe.
Holmes 97 The Papacy had been reduced to controlling only a small portion of land around Rome, and was under constant aggression from the Lombards. Pope Hadrian I in appealed to Charlemagne to help rebuff the Lombards, and in the winter of that year in a short and decisive campaign, the Lombards were defeated.
Ganshoff 41 Power in Carolingian society was based on land ownership, also known as Feudalism. Charlemagne knew that he must have the allegiance of the people to himself, the King.
To accomplish this, he looked back to the seventh century, and instituted an oath of fidelity — a promise to do nothing that would endanger the king or his sons or the royal power. The feudal monarchy created by Charlemagne had two definite characteristics: It created a direct, personal link between the subject and the king.
But more important still, anyone who broke it became guilty not only of infidelitas but also of perjury; if his infidelity was not great enough to attract the death penalty, he could still be condemned to lose his right hand as a perjurer, and what was more, in religious terms he had placed himself in a state of mortal sin.
Once again, an example of the minimal separation of Church and State. Charlemagne recognized the importance of education, not only of spreading it throughout his kingdom, but also of learning for himself the ability to read and write Latin and Greek. To staff his school, Charlemagne turned to the monasteries.
During the Dark Ages preceding the Carolingian dynasty, only the monks had maintained the ability to read and write. They had over the years, however, misprinted many of the books of the Bible.
Charlemagne asked the monk, Alcuin, to head the school, and commissioned him to correct the texts that had been copied incorrectly. Ganshof 30 The schools begun by Charlemagne were primarily for the education of the priests, but were open to all people.
Many of the scholars brought to the Palace School were foreigners: Italians, Spaniards, and Irish, but there were also some Franks. Charlemagne himself joined the school, attended classes, and fulfilled his scholarly duties. He mastered Latin and Greek, but he could not speak Greek as well as he could understand it.
Charlemagne studied grammar, rhetoric, dialects and astronomy as well. He tried to write, but since he began late in life he was not very successful. A text would be read by a student or teacher, accompanied by an explanation.A documentary on The Dark Ages says that Vikings invaded the British isles after Charlemagne of France conquered some of Germany and forced the Germans to convert or die in the years The.
HISTORY OF CHARLEMAGNE including Charles the Great, King of the Lombards, Conversion of the Saxons, A brief crusade into Spain, Holy Roman Emperor, Aachen or Aix-la-Chapelle, A centre of Christian learning, The Carolingian inheritance, The legendary Charlemagne. history of Europe: Charlemagne and the Carolingian dynasty Charlemagne and his successors also patronized a vast project that they and their clerical advisers called correctio —restoring the fragmented western European world to .
HISTORY OF CHARLEMAGNE including Charles the Great, King of the Lombards, Conversion of the Saxons, A brief crusade into Spain, Holy Roman Emperor, Aachen or Aix-la-Chapelle, A centre of Christian learning, The Carolingian inheritance, The legendary Charlemagne. AMONG CHARLEMAGNE’S CONQUESTS were the Saxons.
This group, who had settled in Europe and on the British Isles, spoke the Teutonic language at . Charlemagne: Biography & Conquest Charlemagne, or Charles the Great, King of the Franks (), was a strong leader who unified Western Europe through military power and the blessing of the Church.