The "dark triad" of three personality traits: Sometimes called "dark personality. Psychopathy is a psychological condition in which the individual shows a profound lack of empathy for the feelings of others, a willingness to engage in immoral and antisocial behavior for short-term gains, and extreme egocentricity. Psychopaths do not have the fear response experienced by most of us to the potential negative consequences of criminal or risky behavior and are relatively insensitive to punishment.
Professor DDr Joachim E. The purpose of these guidelines is to offer recommendations for clinicians engaging in implant dentistry, enabling them to correctly assess potential indications and any limitations thereof for short, angulated or diameter-reduced implants. This consensus paper covers only titanium implants typically placed in accordance with the indications recommended by the European Consensus Conference EuCC, Germany, 6 February All consensus recommendations in this paper should be considered as guidelines only.
Avoiding bone augmentation through reduced--dimension implants and optimum utilization of available bone volume is often recommended being a minimally invasive treatment option.
To ensure an acceptable treatment outcome, dimension and insertion type must be considered in addition to the number of implants. The publications identified by the search were screened by reading their abstracts, and those irrelevant to the subject were identified and excluded.
Publications found to be potentially relevant were obtained in full-text form. Multiple review papers with meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials RCTsand other prospective and retrospective systematic clinical studies were available on the subject.
A preliminary version of this document on which the EuCC based its deliberations was prepared by Dr J.
The preliminary report was then reviewed and discussed by the sitting committee members in five steps as follows: Numerous reviews, but few RCTs randomised controlled trials or other systematic clinical trials are available on this topic. The application of standard implants in patients with atrophy of their alveolar ridges or large pneumatization of the maxillary sinus cavity often requires the use of hard tissue augmentation procedures.
These procedures are established, and widely used with success. But depending on level of training of the user and the patient-specific risk factors, complications may occur and affect the postoperative quality of life.
Short implants are increasingly being discussed as a treatment alternative in situations characterized by limited vertical bone height. Compared to the use of standard implants due to biomechanical considerations e. Improvements in implant design and surface along with the use of modified implant insertion methods all are intended to minimize these risks 3.
Short implants are primarily used to avoid bone augmentation procedures in the maxillary and mandibular posterior segments of partially edentulous patients.
They are also used to support removable overdentures as single or multiple tooth replacements in the anterior jaws. For ultra-short implants, there is insufficient evidence to make recommendations at this time. A review paper from summarized findings with RCTs on sinus floor elevation with standard length implants or short implants on their own.
Five studies reported 16—18 months survival rates for long implants in combination with sinus elevation of These results are supported by other RCTs. The number of RCTs on the use in the mandible is limited.
In these RCTs, no relevant differences in biological parameters between the use of short and long implants in the posterior mandible were found. One group has presented five-year results showing no significant difference for the application of short implants alone as compared to standard implants and vertical augmentation in the mandible.
A retrospective comparative analysis also showed no differences between short and long implants for an observation period of five years. Meta-analysis showed high survival rates for short implants with moderately rough surfaces. Long-term data for observation periods of 10 years for the posterior mandible of partially edentulous patients and 20 years for mandibular overdentures showed favourable results for short, sintered porous-surfaced implants.
Some authors have offered recommendations on how to avoid complications that are mainly biomechanical in nature.
Provided the specific treatment parameters are observed, the use of short, angulated or diameter-reduced implants in sites with reduced bone volume can be a reliable treatment option, given the risks associated with the use of standard-dimension implants in combination with augmentation procedures.
The implant surgeon and the restorative dentist must have appropriate training to choose the best possible therapy for each patient. The prosthetic treatment of the severe atrophic maxilla request quite often an implant placement after an intense grafting procedure.
The acceptance of intense grafting procedures e. The use of ultrashort implants is an option to avoid grafting procedures. Standard treatment of short implants is the performed with multiple single units or short span bridges.3/17/ Update on short, angulated and diameter-reduced implants.
11th European Consensus Conference (EuCC) | Cologne, Germany | February 6, In the development of the history of science, the histories of the individual scientific disciplines have played an enormously significant role. People and ideas systems As outlined by Andrew Roberts of Middlesex University, London.
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Spine ;– Different scholars use different definitions of boredom, which complicates research. Boredom has been defined by Cynthia D.
Fisher in terms of its main central psychological processes: "an unpleasant, transient affective state in which the individual feels a pervasive lack of interest and difficulty concentrating on the current activity." Mark Leary et al.
describe boredom as "an affective. People and ideas systems As outlined by Andrew Roberts of Middlesex University, London. Introductory sketches of the ideas of theorists, linked to Andrew Roberts' book Social Science History and the Society and Science History kaja-net.comped from a course document "Outline of the theorists we could cover" (February ), the web .