History of Christianity Early Church and ecumenical councils Main articles:
The Field and its Significance The philosophical exploration of religious beliefs and practices is evident in the earliest recorded philosophy, east and west. This intermingling of philosophical inquiry with religious themes and the broader enterprises of philosophy e.
Only gradually do we find texts devoted exclusively to religious themes. Cudworth and his Cambridge University colleague Henry More produced philosophical work with a specific focus on religion and so, if one insisted on dating the beginning of philosophy of religion as a field, there are good reasons for claiming that it began gradually in the mid- 17th century see Taliaferro Much of the subject matter treated by Cudworth and More is continuous with the current agenda of philosophy of religion arguments about God's existence, the significance of religious pluralism, the nature of good and evil in relation to God, and so onand many of the terms that are in current circulation had their origin in Cudworth's and his colleague's work they coined the terms theism, materialism, consciousness, et al.
Today philosophy of religion is a robust, intensely active area of philosophy. Almost without exception, any introduction to philosophy text in the Anglophone world includes some philosophy of religion. The importance of philosophy of religion is chiefly due to its subject matter: A philosophical exploration of these topics involves fundamental questions about our place in the cosmos and about our relationship to what may transcend the cosmos.
Such philosophical work requires an investigation into the nature and limit of human thought.
Alongside these complex, ambitious projects, philosophy of religion has at least three factors that contribute to its importance for the overall enterprise of philosophy. Philosophy of religion addresses embedded social and personal practices.
Philosophy of religion is therefore relevant to practical concerns; its subject matter is not all abstract theory. Given the vast percentage of the world population that is either aligned with religion or affected by religion, philosophy of religion has a secure role in addressing people's actual values and commitments.
A chief point of reference in much philosophy of religion is the shape and content of living traditions. In this way, philosophy of religion may be informed by the other disciplines that study religious life. Another reason behind the importance of the field is its breadth. There are few areas of philosophy that are shorn of religious implications.
Religious traditions are so comprehensive and all-encompassing in their claims that almost every domain of philosophy may be drawn upon in the philosophical investigation of their coherence, justification, and value. A third reason is historical. Most philosophers throughout the history of ideas, east and west, have addressed religious topics.
One cannot undertake a credible history of philosophy without taking philosophy of religion seriously. While this field is vital for philosophy, philosophy of religion may also make a pivotal contribution to religious studies and theology. Religious studies often involve important methodological assumptions about history and about the nature and limits of religious experience.
These invite philosophical assessment and debate. Theology may also benefit from philosophy of religion in at least two areas. Historically, theology has often drawn upon, or been influenced by, philosophy. Platonism and Aristotelianism have had a major influence on the articulation of classical Christian doctrine, and in the modern era theologians have often drawn on work by philosophers from Hegel to Heidegger and Derrida.
Another benefit lies in philosophy's tasks of clarifying, evaluating, and comparing religious beliefs. The evaluation has at times been highly critical and dismissive, but there are abundant periods in the history of ideas when philosophy has positively contributed to the flourishing of religious life.
This constructive interplay is not limited to the west. The role of philosophy in distinctive Buddhist views of knowledge and the self has been of great importance.
Just as philosophical ideas have fueled theological work, the great themes of theology involving God's transcendence, the divine attributes, providence, and so on, have made substantial impacts on important philosophical projects. Hilary Putnam, for example, has linked the philosophy of truth with the concept of a God's-eye point of view.
At the beginning of the 21st century, a more general rationale for philosophy of religion should be cited: Philosophers of religion now often seek out common as well as distinguishing features of religious belief and practice.
This study can enhance communication between traditions, and between religions and secular institutions. The Meaningfulness of Religious Language A significant amount of work on the meaningfulness of religious language was carried out in the medieval period, with major contributions made by Maimonides —Thomas Aquinas —Duns Scotus —and William of Ockham — In the modern era, the greatest concentration on religious language has taken place in response to logical positivism and to the latter work of Wittgenstein — This section and the next highlights these two more recent movements.
Logical positivism promoted an empiricist principle of meaning which was deemed lethal for religious belief.
The following empiricist principle is representative: The stronger version of positivism is that claims about the world must be verifiable at least in principle.Female education in Nigeria Jump to navigation the National Policy on Education states that access to education is a right for all Nigerian children regardless of gender, religion and disability.
CEDAW has realized the rights and equality of woman is also the key to the survival and development of children and to building healthy. The aim of the empirical section is to examine the effects of religion (and other cultural variables), political attitudes and state of development on the three key factors determining the outcome of educational production according to our theoretical model: .
Religion, Spirituality, and Health Behaviors Religious doctrines influence decisions about health and health behaviors. In the Judeo-Christian scriptures, for example, there is an emphasis on caring for the physical body as a “Temple of the Holy Spirit” (see 1 Corinthian ) [ ].
and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), World Bank, and the World Trade Organization (WTO).
Achieving Sustainable Development and Promoting Development. Religion and Spirituality in Childhood and Adolescence Lisa J.
Bridges, Ph.D. with Kristin A. Moore, Ph.D. January, A Conceptual and Theoretical Overview of Religious and Spiritual Development . Kids with religious parents are better behaved and adjusted than other children, according to a new study that is the first to look at the effects of religion on young child development.