To help the tissue bond, the girl's legs are tied together, often from hip to ankle; the bindings are usually loosened after a week and removed after two to six weeks. Reinfibulation can involve cutting the vagina again to restore the pinhole size of the first infibulation. This might be performed before marriage, and after childbirth, divorce and widowhood. The penetration of the bride's infibulation takes anywhere from 3 or 4 days to several months.
In the United States it is estimated that about ten thousand girls are at risk of this practice. FGC is a cross-cultural and cross-religious ritual.
In Africa and the Middle East it is performed by Muslims, Coptic Christians, members of various indigenous groups, Protestants, and Catholics, to name a few. FGC is a term used to refer to any practice which includes the removal or the alteration of the female genitalia.
There are three main types of FGC that are practiced through the world: I will explain in the next sections what each of these practices involve, and outline some of the short-term and long-term effects that they have. The term "Sunna" refers to tradition as taught by the prophet Muhammad.
This involves the "removal of the prepuce with or without the excision of part or all of the clitoris See the World Health Organization definition.
Type I is practiced in a broad area all across Africa parallel to the equator. Fran Hosken enumerates the following countries: This takes place in countries where infibulation has been outlawed such as Sudan. Clitoridectomy was invented by Sudanese midwives as a compromise when British legislation forbade the most extreme operations in Type II Circumcision Map 1.
This most extreme form, consists of the removal of the clitoris, the adjacent labia majora and minoraand the joining of the scraped sides of the vulva across the vagina, where they are secured with thorns or sewn with catgut or thread. A small opening is kept to allow passage of urine and menstrual blood.
An infibulated woman must be cut open to allow intercourse on the wedding night and is closed again afterwards to secure fidelity to the husband.
Hosken also reports that infibulation is "practiced on all females, almost without exception, in all of Somalia and wherever ethnic Somalis live Ethiopia, Kenya and Djibouti. FGC is mostly done in unsanitary conditions in which a midwife uses unclean sharp instruments such as razor blades, scissors, kitchen knives, and pieces of glass.
These instruments are frequently used on several girls in succession and are rarely cleaned, causing the transmission of a variety of viruses such as the HIV virus, and other infections. Antiseptic techniques and anesthesia are generally not used, or for that matter, heard of.
This is akin to a doctor who uses the same surgical instrument on a number of women at the same time without cleaning any of them. Click on map to enlarge Effects of Female Genital Cutting: Beyond the obvious initial pains of the operations, FGC has long-term physiological, sexual, and psychological effects.
The unsanitary environment under which FGC takes place results in infections of the genital and surrounding areas and often results in the transmission of the HIV virus which can cause AIDS.
Some of the other health consequences of FGC include primary fatalities as a result of shock, hemorrhage or septicemia. In order to minimize the risk of the transmission of the viruses, some countries like Egypt made it illegal for FGC to be practiced by any other practitioners than trained doctors and nurses in hospitals.
While this seems to be a more humane way to deal with FGC and try to reduce its health risks, more tissue is apt to be taken away due to the lack of struggle by the child if anesthesia is used.INTRODUCTION Female genital mutilation is the term now generally accepted for the traditional practices that entail removal of part or all of, or injury to the external genitalia of girls and women.
It does not include genital surgery .
Oct 06, · What is FGM? Female genital mutilation (FGM) otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC) comprises of all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia for non-medical reasons (WHO ).
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a procedure where the female genitals are deliberately cut, injured or changed, but where there's no medical reason for this to be done. It's also known as "female circumcision" or "cutting", and by other terms such as sunna, gudniin, halalays, tahur, .
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
The practice is found in Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and within communities from countries in which FGM is common. You can access the Female genital mutilation case study tutorial for just £ inc VAT. UK prices shown, other nationalities may qualify for reduced prices.
If this tutorial is part of the member benefit package, Fellows, Members, registered Trainees and Associates should sign in to access the tutorial. - Female Genital Mutilation in Africa ital Mutilation in Sudan In the country of Sudan, in Northern Africa, there is a procedure that is tradition and is performed on most women called female genital mutilation, or FGM, which used to be known as female circumcision.