From Civil Rights Movement: They pursued their goals through legal means, negotiations, petitions, and nonviolent protest demonstrations.
Board of Educationwhich outlawed segregated education, or the Montgomery Bus Boycott and culminated in the late s or early s. Despite the fact that they were not always united around strategy and tactics and drew members from different classes and backgrounds, the movement nevertheless cohered around the aim of eliminating the system of Jim Crow segregation and the reform of some of the worst aspects of racism in American institutions and life.
Much of our memory of the Civil Rights Movement of the s and s is embodied in dramatic photographs, newsreels, and recorded speeches, which America encountered in daily papers and the nightly news.
As the movement rolled across the nation, Americans absorbed images of hopeful, disciplined, and dedicated young people shaping their destinies. African Americans fought back with direct action protests and keen political organizing, such as voter registration drives and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.
The images are alternately angering and inspiring, powerful, iconic even. However, by themselves they cannot tell the history of the Civil Rights Movement. They need to be contextualized.
The drama of the mid-twentieth century emerged on a foundation of earlier struggles. Two are particularly notable: Parker for his white supremacist and anti-union views and then defeat senators who voted for confirmation, and a skillful effort to lobby Congress and the Roosevelt administration to pass a federal anti-lynching law.
Southern senators filibustered, but they could not prevent the formation of a national consensus against lynching; by the number of lynchings declined steeply.
Other organizations, such as the left-wing National Negro Congress, fought lynching, too, but the NAACP emerged from the campaign as the most influential civil rights organization in national politics and maintained that position through the mids.
Charles Hamilton Houston The campaign for desegregated education was part of a larger struggle to reshape the contours of America—in terms of race, but also in the ways political and economic power is exercised in this country. Plans for the legal campaign that culminated with Brown were sketched in by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Charles Hamilton Houstonthe black attorney most responsible for developing the legal theory underpinning Brown, focused on segregated education because he believed that it was the concentrated expression of all the inequalities blacks endured. He desired equal access to education, but he also was concerned with the type of society blacks were trying to integrate.
He was among those who surveyed American society and saw racial inequality and the ruling powers that promoted racism to divide black workers from white workers. Because he believed that racial violence in Depression-era America was so pervasive as to make mass direct action untenable, he emphasized the redress of grievances through the courts.
The designers of the Brown strategy developed a potent combination of gradualism in legal matters and advocacy of far-reaching change in other political arenas.
Through the s and much of the s, the NAACP initiated suits that dismantled aspects of the edifice of segregated education, each building on the precedent of the previous one.
Concurrently, civil rights organizations backed efforts to radically alter the balance of power between employers and workers in the United States. They paid special attention to forming an alliance with organized labor, whose history of racial exclusion angered blacks.
In the s, the National Negro Congress brought blacks into the newly formed United Steel Workers, and the union paid attention to the particular demands of African Americans.
In the post-war years blacks supported the decolonization of Africa and Asia. White southern resistance to Brown was formidable and the slow pace of change stimulated impatience especially among younger African Americans as the s began. They concluded that they could not wait for change—they had to make it.
And the Montgomery Bus Boycottwhich lasted the entire year ofhad demonstrated that mass direct action could indeed work.
The four college students from Greensboro who sat at the Woolworth lunch counter set off a decade of activity and organizing that would kill Jim Crow.
The March on Washington, most often remembered as the event at which Dr. King called for a guaranteed annual income, redistribution of the national wealth to meet human needs, and an end to a war to colonize the Vietnamese. Malcolm X proposed to internationalize the black American freedom struggle and to link it with liberation movements in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
Thus the Civil Rights Movement of the s and s was not concerned exclusively with interracial cooperation or segregation and discrimination as a character issue. Rather, as in earlier decades, the prize was a redefinition of American society and a redistribution of social and economic power.
For example, they will question whether President Kennedy sincerely believed in racial equality when he supported civil rights or only did so out of political expediency. Or they may ask how whites could be so cruel as to attack peaceful and dignified demonstrators.
Leading productive discussions that consider broader issues will likely have to involve debunking some conventional wisdom about the Civil Rights Movement. Guiding students to discuss the extent to which nonviolence and racial integration were considered within the movement to be hallowed goals can lead them to greater insights.
Nonviolence and passive resistance were prominent tactics of protesters and organizations.
Jan.â Feb. Martin Luther King, Charles K. Steele, and Fred L. Shuttlesworth establish the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, of which King is made the first president. The SCLC becomes a major force in organizing the civil rights movement and bases its principles on nonviolence and civil disobedience. The Civil Rights Movement of the s was an extension of the progress made during the s. Learn about the movement's landmark achievements, its . Thus the Civil Rights Movement of the s and s was not concerned exclusively with interracial cooperation or segregation and discrimination as a character issue. Rather, as in earlier decades, the prize was a redefinition of American society and a redistribution of social and economic power.
But they were not the only ones, and the number of protesters who were ideologically committed to them was relatively small. Although the name of one of the important civil rights organizations was the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, its members soon concluded that advocating nonviolence as a principle was irrelevant to most African Americans they were trying to reach.
Movement participants in Mississippi, for example, did not decide beforehand to engage in violence, but self-defense was simply considered common sense.
If some SNCC members in Mississippi were convinced pacifists in the face of escalating violence, they nevertheless enjoyed the protection of local people who shared their goals but were not yet ready to beat their swords into ploughshares. Armed self-defense had been an essential component of the black freedom struggle, and it was not confined to the fringe.Thus the Civil Rights Movement of the s and s was not concerned exclusively with interracial cooperation or segregation and discrimination as a character issue.
Rather, as in earlier decades, the prize was a redefinition of American society and a redistribution of social and economic power. The s were one of the most tumultuous and divisive decades in world history, marked by the civil rights movement, the Vietnam War and antiwar protests, political assassinations and the.
The civil rights movement was a struggle for social justice that took place mainly during the s and s for blacks to gain equal rights under the law in the United States. This civil rights movement timeline chronicles important dates during the struggle's second chapter, the early s.
While the fight for racial equality began in the s, the non-violent techniques the movement embraced began to pay off during the following decade. Educator and civil rights activist Harry Tyson Moore was one of the earliest leaders to be assassinated during the modern phase of the civil rights movement.
Moore was a leader in voter registration efforts and worked as a statewide organizer for the NAACP in Florida and concentrated on . The American civil rights movement in the s and ’60s awakened the country’s conscience to the plight of African Americans, who had long been denied first-class citizenship.
The movement used nonviolence and passive resistance to change discriminatory laws and practices, primarily in the South.