The top ten include:
Creating Human Resources In addition to supporting the creation of new technology, federal funding for research has also helped create the human resources that have driven the computer revolution. Many industry researchers and research managers claim that the most valuable result of university research programs is educated students—by and large, an outcome enabled by federal support of university research.
Especially at the nation's top research universities, the studies of a large percentage of graduate students have been supported by federal research contracts.
Graduates of these programs, and faculty researchers who received federal funding, have gone on to form a number of companies, including Sun Microsystems, Inc. Graduates also staff academic faculties that continue to conduct research and educate future generations of researchers.
Furthermore, the availability of federal research funding has enabled the growth and expansion of computer science and computer engineering departments at U. The number of graduate students in computer science also grew dramatically, expanding more than fold from in to 11, inwith the number of Ph.
Even with this growth in Ph. Department of Commerce, Beyond supporting student education and training, federal funding has also been important in creating networks of researchers in particular fields—developing communities of researchers who could share ideas and build on each other's strengths.
Despite its defense orientation, DARPA historically encouraged open dissemination of the results of sponsored research, as did other federal agencies. In addition, DARPA and other federal agencies funded large projects with multiple participants from different organizations.
Government Support for Computing Research. The National Academies Press.
Development of the Internet demonstrates the benefits of this approach: Early users of the ARPANET created a critical mass of people who helped to disseminate the technology, giving the Internet Protocol an important early lead over competing approaches to packet switching see Chapter 7.
Scientific societies have also played a significant role in this respect. This organization brought together university and industry researchers, as well as users of computer graphics, from a variety of fields e. Its annual conferences have become a showcase of new technology and a primary forum for exchanging new ideas.
Accomplishing Federal Missions In addition to supporting industrial innovation and the economic benefits that it brings, federal support for computing research has enabled government agencies to accomplish their missions.
Many of the missions these agencies must fulfill depend on computing technologies. DOD, for example, has maintained a policy of achieving military superiority over potential adversaries not through numerical superiority i.
Computing has become a central part of information gathering, management, and analysis for commanders and soldiers alike High Performance Computing Modernization Office, Similarly, DOE and its predecessors would have been unable to support their mission of designing nuclear weapons without the simulation capabilities of large supercomputers.
Such computers have retained their value to DOE as its mission has shifted toward stewardship of the nuclear stockpile in an era of restricted nuclear testing. New computing capabilities, including the World Wide Web, have enabled the National Library of Medicine to expand access to medical information and have provided tools for researchers who are sequencing the human genome.
Characteristics of Effective Federal Support The success of federal funding in computing research derives both from the kind of programs and projects it has supported and the ways it has structured those programs.
By funding a mix of fundamental research and system development activities, for example, government was able to promote the long-term health of the field and to demonstrate new technologies.
By funding a mix of work in universities and industry, it was able to marry long-term objectives to real-world problems.Computer based testing is useless unless you can interpret the results and then put in place changes to curriculum, better teaching, resource funding as well as testing .
Using Computers to Assist in Teaching and Learning Developed by Helen Rallis, based on input from UMD faculty, updated January 28, (where faculty member does not have access to a computer in the classroom or does not feel comfortable with giving PowerPoint presentation). Creating computer based materials for class is very time.
Computer-based tests are another challenge for low-income students, teachers say Administrators have long raised concerns about funding for technology. “You have to teach both the.
Computer-Based and Computer-Aided Learning of Applied Statistics at the Department In taking Research on the Role of Technology in Teaching and Learning Statistics as the theme of its the problems by basing their teaching around faulty software?
How can we educate the general public and. PLATO was a computer-based training network, whose system provided access to a central library of courses.
As computer technology evolved, so did computer-based learning. Today, the Computer-Based Instruction model is used by myriad of learning programs throughout the world. suggest that computer-based technology is only one element in what must be a coordinated approach to improving curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, teacher development, and other aspects of .