Domestication of plants and animals

Other examples of on-going human evolution Introduction Humans are a young species, in geological terms. The average "lifespan" of a mammal species, measured by its duration in the fossil record, is around 10 million years. While hominids have followed a separate evolutionary path since their divergence from the ape lineage, around 7 million years ago, our own species Homo sapiens is much younger. Fossils classified as archaic H.

Domestication of plants and animals

It is very possible that plants have sensitivities that we do not yet understand. Because plants do not have nervous systems and cannot run away from predators, it has generally been assumed that they do not experience pain and suffering. Recent scientific evidence suggests that the life of plants is more complex than we once thought.

However, we do know that birds, mammals and fish have well-developed nervous systems and pain receptors. Like us, they show pleasure and pain and they present comparable evidence of fear and well-being.

Africa and the Near East The process of simply keeping wild animals in captivity does not mean the species as a whole has been domesticated, nor does it mean that a specific individual is domesticated. Biologist, author, and University of California Los Angeles professor Jared Diamond references the elephant in captivity which has been captured from the wild for years and trained using a number of techniques, most of which utilize bull hooks electric prods and chains.
Origins of domestication Lavenda This interesting piece on the effects of agriculture is from the college textbook Anthropology:
Domestication of animals At the moment that humans began controlling the reproduction of honey bee stocks, the process of domestication was begun. This process has intrinsic genetic and biological consequences, some of which have come to haunt us today.

Animals cry out in pain, they nurse wounded body parts, and they seek to avoid those who have hurt them in the past. In order to live, one has to eat. However, when we eat animal products, we consume many more plants indirectly than if we ate those plants directly, because the animals we eat are fed huge quantities of grasses, grains, and seeds to be converted into meat, milk, and eggs.

As a vegan one who eats no animal products you cause fewer beings to suffer and die for you. What will we do with all the animals if we stop eating them? Farm animals will not overrun the earth if we stop eating them because we will no longer intentionally breed them as we do now.

Parent flocks and herds are deliberately maintained by artificial insemination, genetic selection, bizarre lighting schedules and other manipulations to force them to produce billions of offspring each year. This inflated population will fade as people stop eating animal products.

Domestication of plants and animals

But, like all animals except humansthey would adjust their numbers in accordance with the conditions around them. We have an obligation to find ways to ease the transitional period for these animals.

Farm animals have been bred for domestication. Feral chickens, pigs, and other farm animals "feral" refers to domesticated animals who have become self-sustaining again successfully resume their natural activities given the chance: Farm animals are much more autonomous and resilient than is commonly supposed.

Otherwise, it is better for creatures afflicted with human- created defects not to be born. People who think it is all right to imprison animals in genetically-impaired bodies and who then get testy about their becoming extinct, are indulging in cynicism and sentimentality.

Call their bluff and move on to other issues. Is confinement so terrible? After all, farmers protect their animals from bad weather and predators and provide them with food, water and shelter.

Slave traders and slaveholders argued that it was better to be a slave in a "civilized, Christian" society than to be at liberty in a heathen jungle.

This same rationalization is used to justify expropriating and subjugating other species. Producers tell the public that farm animals prefer "three meals a day" to a life in the wild.

Domestication of plants and animals

In fact, the "wild" is a human projection onto areas of the earth and modes of being that are alien and inhospitable to our species. It is their home.

Animals in wall-to-wall confinement are forced to live in a situation that expresses human nature, not theirs. If they preferred to be packed together without contact with the world outside, then we would not need intensive physical confinement facilities, since they would voluntarily cram together and save us money.

It is illogical to argue that humans protect farm animals from "predators. Moreover, by confining them we subject them to many more nonhuman predators in the form of parasites and other disease organisms than they would otherwise encounter. Millions more animals die of heat stress and other climactic conditions in intensive confinement facilities than they would in nature.

The inability of confined farm animals to exercise their natural defenses and self-assertion induces pathological stress leading to immune-system breakdown. Only by twisted standards can apathy and atrophy be regarded as benefiting an animal. If farm animals are treated as badly as you say, why are they so productive?

Farm animals can be profoundly mistreated and still "produce," in the same way that profoundly mistreated humans can be overweight, sexually active and able to produce offspring. Like humans, farm animals can "adapt," up to a point, to living in slums and concentration camp conditions.

Is this an argument for slums and concentration camps? Farm animals do not gain weight, lay eggs, and produce milk because they are comfortable, content, or well-cared for, but because they have been manipulated specifically to do these things through genetics, medications, and management techniques.

Animals in production agriculture are slaughtered at extremely young ages, before disease and death have decimated them as would otherwise happen even with all the drugs. Even so, many more individual animals suffer and die in intensive farming, but because the volume of animals being used is so big--in the billions--the losses are economically negligible, while the volume of flesh, milk and eggs is abnormally increased.

The fact that giving farm animals a decent life before killing them can be seriously questioned represents an important reason to stop raising them for food. It is not that they are going to die anyway that seems to justify our mistreatment of them when they are alive--we are all going to die but we do not generalize the argument--but that we are deliberately going to kill them.Domestication: Domestication, the process of hereditary reorganization of wild animals and plants into domestic and cultivated forms according to the interests of people.

In its strictest sense, it refers to the initial stage of human mastery of wild animals and plants. The fundamental distinction of domesticated. 65 rows · Domestication is the process of adapting wild plants and animals for human use.

Domestic . Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domestication. Modern summaries (and this colloquium) arrange the drivers of “descent with modification” into natural, sexual and artificial selection, but Darwin's conceptual organization was somewhat different from our .

The domestication of plants is one of the first and most crucial steps in developing a full-fledged, reliable agricultural successfully feed a society from a set of plants, you have to be able to control the growing seasons and continuously improve the harvest. An alphabetical list of terms and explanations that are used within this Evolution for Teaching website.

Zoology, branch of biology that studies the members of the animal kingdom and animal life in general. It includes both the inquiry into individual animals and their constituent parts, even to the molecular level, and the inquiry into animal populations, entire faunas, and the relationships of animals to each other, to plants, and to the nonliving .

The Consequences of Domestication and Sedentism--Emily A. Schultz & Robert H. Lavenda