Integration and coordination An organization is a continuing system, able to distinguish and integrate human activities. The organization utilizes, transforms and joins together a set of human, material and other resources for problem-solving Bakke, The main function of an organization is to satisfy specific human needs in interaction with other sub-systems of human activities and resources in the given environment. In a research organization, individual needs of researchers are more often in conflict with organizational needs than in any other organization.
Areas of research include improving job performance, increasing job satisfaction, promoting innovation and encouraging leadership. In order to achieve the desired results, managers may adopt different tactics, including reorganizing groups, modifying compensation structures and changing the way performance is evaluated.
History While organizational behavior as a field of academic study was not fully recognized by the American Psychological Association until the s, its roots go back to the late s when the Hawthorne Electric Company set up a series of experiments designed to discern how changes in environment and design changed the productivity of their employees.
Their various studies, conducted between the years of and Organisational behaviour an overview of various, were broad and meticulously measured over large periods of time.
The studies included the effect of various types of breaks lots of small breaks, a few long ones, etc.
The most famous finding resulting from the Hawthorne Studies is what is now called the Hawthorne Effect, the change in behavior of a test subject when they know they are being observed. The idea of looking scientifically at behavior and productivity in the workplace with the goal of increasing the amount and quality of work an employee can get done, was coupled with the idea that workers were not interchangeable resources.
Workers were instead unique in terms of their psychology and potential fit with a company. These ideas were radically new when Hawthorne first began the studies, and they helped create a field of study and an entire professional field.
Organizational behavior has focused on various different topics of study. In part because of the Second World War, during the s, the field focused on logistics and management science.
During this period, the emphasis was on using mathematical modeling and statistical analysis to find the best answers for complex problems. In the s, theories of contingency and institutions, as well as organizational ecology, resource dependence, and bounded rationality came to the fore as the field focused more on quantitative research.
These findings and sets of theories helped organizations better understand how to improve business structure and decision making.
Since the s, a good deal of the work being done in the field of organizational behavior has been on cultural components of organizations, including topics such as race, class, gender roles, and cultural relativism and their roles on group building and productivity.
These studies, a part of a shift in focus in the field towards qualitative research, and among other things, take into account the ways in which identity and background can inform decision making.
Academic Focuses Academic Programs focusing on organizational behavior are usually found in business schools, and schools of social work and psychology.
They draw from the fields of anthropology, ethnography, and leadership studies and use quantitative, qualitative, and computer models as methods to explore and test ideas.
Depending on the program, one can study specific topics within organizational behavior, or broader fields. The topics covered by Micro OB include cognition, decision making, learning, motivation, negotiation, impressions, group process, stereotyping, and power and influence.
Macro OB covers organizations as social systems, dynamics of change, markets, relationships between organizations and their environments, as well as identity in organizational process, how social movements influence markets, and the power of social networks. There is rarely one correct way to assess the right way to manage any of these things, but OB research can provide a set of guidelines and topics to follow.
Theories around job satisfaction vary widely, but some argue that a satisfying job consists of a solid reward system, compelling work, good supervisors, and satisfactory working conditions. Leadership, what it looks like and where it is derived from is a rich topic of debate and study within the field of organizational behavior.
Power, authority, and politics all operate inter-dependently in a workplace. Understanding the appropriate ways, as agreed upon by a workplace rules and general ethical guidelines, in which these elements are exhibited and used are key components to running a cohesive business.
Journals of Organizational Behavior.6 Contributing Disciplines to the Organization Behavior Field There are some important disciplines in the organizational behavior field which developed it extensively. Due to an increase in organizational complexity, various types of knowledge are required and help in many ways.
Organizational behaviour in the words of Keith Davis may be defined as - "Organizational behaviour is the study and application of knowledge about human behaviour in organizations as it relates to other system elements, such as structure, technology and the external social system. MODERN MANAGEMENT THEORIES AND PRACTICES: A CRITICAL OVERVIEW Introduction desires and attitudes, their behavior as individuals and in groups.
Hence, given situation may differ considerably among various levels in an organization or various types of enterprises. The scope of authority held may vary and the. An organization, by its most basic definition, is an assembly of people working together to achieve common objectives through a division of labor.
An organization provides a means of using. Industrial-organizational psychology is the branch of psychology that applies psychological theories and principles to organizations. Often referred to as I-O psychology, this field focuses on increasing workplace productivity and related issues such as the physical and mental well-being of employees.
Impact of different leadership styles on followers and how the attitudes, behaviour and competence of followers impact leaders; and the Effectiveness of different leadership styles in different situations.