This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Fertility rates tend to be higher in poorly resourced countries but due to high maternal and perinatal mortality, there is a reduction in birth rates. In developing countries children are needed as a labour force and to provide care for their parents in old age.
This article throws light upon the five main factors affecting fertility in women. Biological factors like age and sex are very important in affecting fertility.
Fecundity depends on the woman and her age.
It is only the woman who can bear a child with the onset of menstruation. This process stops when menopause begins. Thus the onset of menstruation and menopause are the biological limits to fertility in the case of a woman.
The start of the first menstrual period, known as menarche, depends on climate, health, food, etc. In cold climate, it may start at the age of 15 years whereas in hot climate at the age of 10 years.
It may start earlier in the case of a healthy girl and late in a weak and ailing girl. The reproductive span of females is years. But it is not uniform. In the early years, their fecundity is low. It is the highest between 20 to 25 years.
After that, it starts declining slowly up to 38 years and then rapidly till the age of years when it totally stops. There are no such limits in the case of a male who can beget children even in old age. So fertility depends upon biological factors like age and sex.
There are physiological factors which affect the fecundity period of women. They are in fact, the periods in the reproductive pattern of a woman when she is not able to conceive and is sterile. Sterility in a woman may be due to a number factors.
In societies where a girl is married at an early age, the interval between cohabitation and the birth of the first child is longer because the girl is not developed physically to bear the child. This is called adolescent sterility. Besides, there are certain periods when a woman does not conceive after the birth of a child.
She is temporarily sterile. It takes a few months for a woman to resume the menstrual cycle without which she cannot conceive.
Where breastfeeding is practised, the birth of the other child is delayed during that period. Some couples may have primary sterility. They may not have any child throughout their lives either by choice or due to their inability.
There may also be secondary sterility when due to an accident, infection, disease or any other impairment, the couple is unable to give birth to a child. Fertility is also affected by abortion, deliberate or natural, and still births. Bogaarts and Potter have listed seven proximate determinants of fertility.
The first two of these seven determinants determine the length of reproductive span and the other five determine the rate of child- bearing. Social factors like religion, caste, race, family system, education, status of woman, etc.
They are discussed as under: Religion affects fertility in many societies. In Asian countries, marriage is a social institution and a religious duty.Some health problems are low birth weight, children from poor families are times more likely to be born that way.
Also, children who live in poverty are two times more likely to repeat a grade and two times more likely to drop out of school altogether. There is a concern about declining birth rates in both the developing and developed world (kaja-net.com). Fertility rates tend to be higher in poorly resourced countries but due to high maternal and perinatal mortality, there is a reduction in birth rates.
One is that birth control and sex education are simply more widely available in wealthy countries. In poor countries, many have no form of birth control other than abstinence, which is not a popular option. Why is birth-rate higher in developing countries as compared to developed countries? Update Cancel.
higher birth rates lead to. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE-unit 2, question #1 Please explain, in your own words, six factors that influence birth rates in poor kaja-net.com files forth coming. Birth Rates, National Income And Infant Mortality Rates.
Print Reference this. Published: 23rd At the macroeconomic level income is inversely proportional to birth rates i.e. the poor countries with low per-capita income tend to have high birth rates and vice-versa. Health seems to influence birth rate more than wealth; hitherto for a.
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