Write a short description of the water cycle

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Write a short description of the water cycle

Low tide at Bar HarborMaineU. When the Moon is closest, at perigeethe range increases, and when it is at apogeethe range shrinks.

Even at its most powerful this force is still weak, [11] causing tidal differences of inches at most. A compound tide or overtide results from the shallow-water interaction of its two parent waves. Amplitude is indicated by color, and the white lines are cotidal differing by 1 hour. The colors indicate where tides are most extreme highest highs, lowest lowswith blues being least extreme.

In almost a dozen places on this map the lines converge. Notice how at each of these places the surrounding color is blue, indicating little or no tide. These convergent areas are called amphidromic points.

The curved arcs around the amphidromic points show the direction of the tides, each indicating a synchronized 6-hour period.


Tidal ranges generally increase with increasing distance from amphidromic points. Tide waves move around these points, generally counterclockwise in the N.

Hemisphere and clockwise in the S. Hemisphere [14] [15] Because the M2 tidal constituent dominates in most locations, the stage or phase of a tide, denoted by the time in hours after high water, is a useful concept. Lines of constant tidal phase are called cotidal lines, which are analogous to contour lines of constant altitude on topographical maps.

High water is reached simultaneously along the cotidal lines extending from the coast out into the ocean, and cotidal lines and hence tidal phases advance along the coast.

Semi-diurnal and long phase constituents are measured from high water, diurnal from maximum flood tide. This and the discussion that follows is precisely true only for a single tidal constituent.

For an ocean in the shape of a circular basin enclosed by a coastline, the cotidal lines point radially inward and must eventually meet at a common point, the amphidromic point. The amphidromic point is at once cotidal with high and low waters, which is satisfied by zero tidal motion.

The rare exception occurs when the tide encircles an island, as it does around New Zealand, Iceland and Madagascar. Tidal motion generally lessens moving away from continental coasts, so that crossing the cotidal lines are contours of constant amplitude half the distance between high and low water which decrease to zero at the amphidromic point.

For a semi-diurnal tide the amphidromic point can be thought of roughly like the center of a clock face, with the hour hand pointing in the direction of the high water cotidal line, which is directly opposite the low water cotidal line.

High water rotates about the amphidromic point once every 12 hours in the direction of rising cotidal lines, and away from ebbing cotidal lines. This rotation, caused by the Coriolis effectis generally clockwise in the southern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere.

The difference of cotidal phase from the phase of a reference tide is the epoch. South of Cape Hatteras the tidal forces are more complex, and cannot be predicted reliably based on the North Atlantic cotidal lines.

write a short description of the water cycle

Tidal force and Theory of tides History of tidal physics Investigation into tidal physics was important in the early development of celestial mechanicswith the existence of two daily tides being explained by the Moon's gravity.

Later the daily tides were explained more precisely by the interaction of the Moon's and the Sun's gravity. Seleucus of Seleucia theorized around B. The influence of the Moon on bodies of water was also mentioned in Ptolemy 's Tetrabiblos [17].

In De temporum ratione The Reckoning of Time of Bede linked semidurnal tides and the phenomenon of varying tidal heights to the Moon and its phases.

Increasing tides are called malinae and decreasing tides ledones and that the month is divided into four parts of seven or eight days with alternating malinae and ledones.

Stevin pleaded for the idea that the attraction of the Moon was responsible for the tides and spoke in clear terms about ebb, flood, spring tide and neap tidestressing that further research needed to be made.

The resulting theory, however, was incorrect as he attributed the tides to the sloshing of water caused by the Earth's movement around the Sun. He hoped to provide mechanical proof of the Earth's movement.

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Tide - Wikipedia